Johnson schools Whittington provide three viewpoints about strategy i.e. there are three ways to understand that what can be meant by the term “strategy”.
Strategy as design:
This is the viewpoint that strategy development is a logical process that an organization has to follow. This process includes analysis of external environment (macro and micro), internal environment (culture), competencies, resources, capabilities, clear direction, stakeholders and structure of the organization. Strategy as design leads to rational approach for strategy formulation usually formulated by top level management.
Strategy as experience:
This is the viewpoint that strategy development is based on experiences gained by organization in past. Organizations or firms have practiced a lot of strategies and these organizations can assess what type of strategy has provided benefit to the organization. Experience of favorable and unfavorable strategies will definitely ultimately increase knowledge base of the organization. And on the basis of its knowledge base (experience) organization may decide its strategy for its future. This viewpoint actually reflects the emergent approach we have discussed earlier.
Strategy as ideas:
This is the view point that strategy development is based on new and innovative ideas that can be provided from any individual not only or necessary the top level management in the organization. Strategy as ideas mean strategy should have a unique idea which is not currently used by any of the competitor. Apple usually try to make such strategies that contain unique ideas.